منتديات كلية طب الأسنان - جامعة الكوفة - تصميم وإدارة الطالب : أمير صلاح المولى


أهلا وسهلا بك زائرنا الكريم
في منتديات كليه طب الاسنان جامعه الكوفه
يشرفنا تسجيلكم في المنتدى
مع تحيات اداره المنتدى
امير المولى
وميثم الشمري

منتديات كلية طب الأسنان - جامعة الكوفة - تصميم وإدارة الطالب : أمير صلاح المولى

*** الإدارة ليست مسؤولة عن الإعلانات التي تظهر في أعلى وأسفل صفحات المنتدى ****** يمكنكم التواصل مع باقي الأعضاء في قسم الدردشة الموجود في أعلى الصفحة الرئيسية وذلك بالضغط على دخول****** لمزيد من المعلومات والإستفسارات وتقديم مقترحاتكم للمنتدى أو شكواكم يرجى التواصل عبر البريد الإلكتروني للإدارة : ameer_salah2005@yahoo.com ****** تمنياتنا لكم قضاء أمتع اللحظات مع أسرة منتديات كلية طب الأسنان - جامعة الكوفة ... دمتم بخير****

    the Endoscopy

    شاطر

    الدكتورة الجديدة
    عضو جديد
    عضو جديد

    تاريخ التسجيل : 09/04/2010

    the Endoscopy

    مُساهمة من طرف الدكتورة الجديدة في السبت أبريل 17, 2010 8:22 pm

    Endoscopy (pronounced /ɛnˈdɒskəpi/) means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope (pronounced /ˈɛndəskoʊp/), an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line-of-sight observation is not feasible.

    Contents[hide]
    1 Components
    2 Uses
    3 History
    3.1 Early
    3.2 Storz
    3.3 Development of the Gastroscope [edit] Components
    An endoscope can consist of

    a rigid or flexible tube
    a light delivery system to illuminate the organ or object under inspection. The light source is normally outside the body and the light is typically directed via an optical fiber system
    a lens system transmitting the image to the viewer from the fiberscope
    an additional channel to allow entry of medical instruments or manipulators
    [edit] Uses
    Endoscopy can involve

    The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract):
    esophagus, stomach and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)
    small intestine (enteroscopy)
    large intestine\colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy)
    Magnification endoscopy
    bile duct
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), duodenoscope-assisted cholangiopancreatoscopy, intraoperative cholangioscopy
    rectum (rectoscopy) and anus (anoscopy), both also referred to as (proctoscopy)
    The respiratory tract
    The nose (rhinoscopy)
    The lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy)
    The ear (otoscope)
    The urinary tract (cystoscopy)
    The female reproductive system (gynoscopy)
    The cervix (colposcopy)
    The uterus (hysteroscopy)
    The fallopian tubes (falloscopy)
    Normally closed body cavities (through a small incision):
    The abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy)
    The interior of a joint (arthroscopy)
    Organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy)
    During pregnancy
    The amnion (amnioscopy)
    The fetus (fetoscopy)
    Plastic Surgery
    Panendoscopy (or triple endoscopy)
    Combines laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy, and bronchoscopy
    Orthopedic surgery
    Hand Surgery, such as endoscopic carpal tunnel release
    Epidural space(Epiduroscopy)
    Non-medical uses for endoscopy
    The planning and architectural community have found the endoscope useful for pre-visualization of scale models of proposed buildings and cities (architectural endoscopy)
    Internal inspection of complex technical systems (borescope)
    Endoscopes are also a tool helpful in the examination of improvised explosive devices by bomb disposal personnel.
    The FBI uses endoscopes for conducting surveillance via tight spaces.
    [edit] History
    [edit] Early
    The first endoscope, of a kind, was developed in 1806 by Philip Bozzini with his introduction of a "Lichtleiter" (light conductor) "for the examinations of the canals and cavities of the human body". However, the Vienna Medical Society disapproved of such curiosity. An endoscope was first introduced into a human in 1822 by William Beaumont, an army surgeon at Mackinac Island, Michigan[citation needed]. The use of electric light was a major step in the improvement of endoscopy. The first such lights were external. Later, smaller bulbs became available making internal light possible, for instance in a hysteroscope by Charles David in 1908[citation needed]. Hans Christian Jacobaeus has been given credit for early endoscopic explorations of the abdomen and the thorax with laparoscopy (1912) and thoracoscopy (1910)[citation needed]. Laparoscopy was used in the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder disease by Heinz Kalk in the 1930s[citation needed]. Hope reported in 1937 on the use of laparoscopy to diagnose ectopic pregnancy[citation needed]. In 1944, Raoul Palmer placed his patients in the Trendelenburg position after gaseous distention of the abdomen and thus was able to reliably perform gynecologic laparoscopy[citation needed].

    [edit] Storz
    Karl Storz began producing instruments for ENT specialists in 1945. His intention was to develop instruments which would enable the practitioner to look inside the human body. The technology available at the end of the Second World War was still very modest: The area under examination in the interior of the human body was illuminated with miniature electric lamps; alternatively, attempts were made to reflect light from an external source into the body through the endoscopic tube. Karl Storz pursued a plan: He set out to introduce very bright, but cold light into the body cavities through the instrument, thus providing excellent visibility while at the same time allowing objective documentation by means of image transmission. With more than 400 patents and operative samples to his name, which were to play a major role in showing the way ahead, Karl Storz played a crucial role in the development of endoscopy. It was however, the combination of his engineering skills and vision, coupled with the work of optical designer Harold Hopkins that ultimately would revolutionize the field of medical optics.

    [edit] Development of the Gastroscope
    The gastroscope was first developed in 1952 by a Japanese team of a doctor and optical engineers. Mutsuo Sugiura, in association with Olympus Corporation, worked with Dr. Tatsuro Uji and his subordinate, Shoji Fukami, to develop what he first called a "gastro camera". It consisted of a tiny camera attached to a flexible tip with a light bulb. With it, they were able to photograph stomach ulcers that were undetectable by X-ray and find stomach cancers in early stage.

    [edit] Fiber Optics
    In the early 1950s Harold Hopkins designed a “fibroscope” (a coherent bundle of flexible glass fibres able to transmit an image), which proved useful both medically and industrially. The subsequent research and development of these fibres, led to further improvements in image quality. Further innovations included using additional fibres to channel light to the objective end from a powerful external source - thereby achieving the high level of full spectrum illumination that was needed for detailed viewing and colour photography. (The previous practice of a small filament lamp on the tip of the endoscope had left the choice of either viewing in a dim red light or increasing the light output at the risk of burning the inside of the patient.) Alongside the advances to the optical side, came the ability to 'steer' the tip via controls in the endoscopists hands and innovations in remotely operated surgical instruments contained within the body of the endoscope itself. It was the beginning of key-hole surgery as we know it today. Fernando Alves Martins, from
    3.4 Fiber Optics
    3.5 Rod-lens Endoscopes
    4 Risks
    5 After the endoscopy
    6 Recent developments
    7 References

    ????
    زائر

    رد: the Endoscopy

    مُساهمة من طرف ???? في الإثنين أبريل 19, 2010 8:49 pm

    تسلمين خيتي بس احنه شو ماعدنه هجي تجربه

    الدكتورة الجديدة
    عضو جديد
    عضو جديد

    تاريخ التسجيل : 09/04/2010

    رد: the Endoscopy

    مُساهمة من طرف الدكتورة الجديدة في الإثنين أبريل 19, 2010 10:48 pm

    بالنسبه لكليه الطب العام نحتاجها في المستشفى

    ☻♥ المولے ♥☻
    المديــــــر العـــــــــــام للمنتـــــــــدى
    المديــــــر العـــــــــــام للمنتـــــــــدى

    ذكر
    الجوزاء
    تاريخ التسجيل : 11/12/2009
    العمــــــــــــــــر : 26
    الموقع : ameer_salah2005@yahoo.com

    رد: the Endoscopy

    مُساهمة من طرف ☻♥ المولے ♥☻ في الأحد أبريل 25, 2010 9:40 pm


    مشكوره دكتوره على المجهود ... تحياتي


    _______________________________________________
    أمير صلاح المولى جامعة الكوفة كلية طب الأسنان أمير المولى
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    أمير صلاح المولى جامعة الكوفة كلية طب الأسنان أمير المولى
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    أمير صلاح المولى جامعة الكوفة كلية طب الأسنان أمير المولى
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    أمير صلاح المولى جامعة الكوفة كلية طب الأسنان أمير المولى
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
    أمير صلاح المولى جامعة الكوفة كلية طب الأسنان أمير المولى
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الثلاثاء فبراير 21, 2017 4:33 am